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托福聽力如何快速提高學會做文本分析和話題總結

2020-12-08 | 編輯:y | 分享到
摘要:托福聽力如何快速提高學會做文本分析和話題總結

  托福聽力如何快速提高學會做文本分析和話題總結,聽力啊聽力~真是讓人抓狂~??

  有的同學80%備考時間都砸在了聽力上,考試時也覺得自己都聽懂了,結果….聽力分數和裸考成績一樣,不堪入目!??

  有的同學本來口語和寫作能力還可以,可是….聽力聽不懂,綜合口語和綜合寫作分數拉低了整科成績。??

  還有些同學干脆每次聽聽力,全程蒙蔽???!單詞聽不懂,不知道要聽什么,做題一塌糊涂。??

  說到底,還是聽力學習出了問題。要知道,托福不是一個喜歡難為你的考試,不存在聽力很好,但是因為題型沒見過最后沒考好的情況。如果你的能力接近了,即使有沒有見過的托福題型,最終成績也不會跟實際成績有很大懸殊。

  實際上,有的同學聽力分數不高是自己的閱讀能力也有問題。如果你讀都沒讀不懂,做聽力只會放大你的問題。所以,建議托??绝唫儗W聽力也要做文本分析。

  或許你覺得先精讀原文再做精聽,會記住原文才聽,會不會沒什么用?小編在聽力能力接近的同學身上做過對比。事實上,看完文本再做精聽的同學,比硬著頭皮一句句精聽的同學,投入時間短且進步更大。

  所以說,想要聽力能力進步大一點,聽力文本分析就要立刻、馬上、現在做起來?。?!下面,解釋下怎么去做文本分析和話題總結。

  Lecture套路

  做了TPO題目多了,你就能總結出聽力共性。有了這些總結,你在聽新文章時會有特殊魔力,就算新題也能聽出似曾相識的感覺,你能輕松聽出重點,保持情緒穩定,不會被聽不懂的句子造成很大干擾。

  比如現象解釋型文章里,典型的層次結構是:

  Step1: 引出要討論的話題或現象(開頭1min內對應目的主旨)

  Step2: 引出理論或詳細展開理論相關2-3個細節 (按順序出細節題概率大)

  Step3: 對理論進行總結或評價(30s內,主要評價內容的信號詞)

  Step4: 若第一個理論被駁斥,則展開第二個理論并評價(該部分依據文章而變化)

  每個分層結構都會對應具體信號詞(not, so, ok, well, today, but...), 在分層延伸話題中,會穿插聽力十大考點(比如,主旨考點、因果考點、并列考點、轉折考點、強調考點等等)。

  你會發現原文行文邏輯是與出題邏輯密切聯系的,就好比是couple組合:哪里出現了邏輯內容,哪里就有可能出題。

  Lecture總共有六道題,按照原文行文順序,基本上是一道題對應一個聽力分層。簡單來說,聽力文章=主旨段+主體段A/B/C/D+結尾段。而出題設置是:目的主旨題+4道其他題型(細節題居多)+態度題/重聽題/推斷題。

托福聽力如何快速提高學會做文本分析和話題總結

  聽力文本分析

  TPO43.2  Why Leaves Change Color

  「開頭段」引出lecture要討論的話題

Professor: It's autumn and as you know in most parts of the United States, the leaves on the trees are changing color from green to yellow, orange and lots of other colors. So this will be a great time to talk about how and why some of these leaves turn one color in particular and that's bright red.(1??目的主旨題)

  「主體段1」關于樹葉變綠的傳統理論解釋:

  Well, before we discuss why leaves turn red, first, let's, um, look, I know this is very old material, but just to play it safe, let's first go overwhy leaves are usually green.(2??轉折考點-推斷題)

  It’s chlorophyll, right?

Leaves get their green color from chlorophyll, the chemical that's responsible for photosynthesis. The chlorophyll in the leaves collects energy from the Sun in the form of sunlight and it converts this energy into sugar which is food for the plant. It's chlorophyll that makes leaves green most of the time.

  Now, the classic explanation for why leaves change color is this.

In autumn, the leaves start preparing for the winter and stop synthesizing new chlorophyll. Since chlorophyll is sensitive to sunlight and to cold temperatures both of which you get in autumn. The existing chlorophyll in the leaves breaks down and since it’s not been replaced by the new chlorophyll, the green color of the leaves gradually fades away. As this happens, the other pigments present in the leaf become visible. According to the classic theory, this is true for the red pigment as well. It was there in the leaf all along but it was hidden by the green chlorophyll.

  「主體段2」傳統理論的評價:只適用于葉子變黃或橙的情況,并不適用于變紅的這種現象。

  OK, so that's the classic explanation and it's partially right.

  Why do I say partially?

  Well, it's probably true for pigments like yellow or orange, but it doesn't seem to hold for the red pigment.(3??轉折考點-細節題)

  「主體段3」解釋葉子變紅之前,先討論anthocyanin意外增多現象。

  Let's back up a bit. Just what produces this red color in leaves? It's a red pigment called anthocyanin.

Here is where the classic explanation doesn't seem to apply to red. What’s interesting is that during the summer there was very little if any anthocyanin in the leaves. But in the weeks before a tree is about to drop its leaves, the production of anthocyanins increases significantly. In other words, unlike those other pigments, anthocyanins are not just unmasked by the breakdown of chlorophyll in autumn. They are actually created at this time.

  So that raises a question, why would a tree produce more anthocyanin just before dropping its leaves? Why does the tree spend so much of its resources doing this just before the leaves fall off? On the surface, that doesn’t make sense it’d be likes spending money to...I don't know...to have your old car repainted when you know the car's not going to last more than a couple of months. All this extra anthocyanin in the autumn seems like a waste. (舉例考點-組織結構題)

  But remember nature is very economical with its resources. So that means anthocyanin must be serving some function that's important for the tree.

  「主體段4」指出anthocyanin意外增多的原因,從而解釋葉子為什么變紅。

  Today, there are some theories about what that function might be. One of them involves predatory insects; another involves fungi. You know, the more I read about these theories and the related research, it always created more questions for me than answers. So I was really glad to learn about a totally different theory, a new one. It seems to come with research and data that give a full explanation. So here it is.(5??因果考點-態度題) Remember I said the chlorophyll breaks down? Well, in autumn, a whole lot of other chemical constituents of the leaf break down as well. I don't mean they are totally destroyed cause actually they break down into other different chemicals that the tree can reabsorb from the leaves and reuse later.

  Now, this reabsorption process is very important for the tree and here is the key. It's sensitive to light, meaning that too much exposure to sunlight can interfere with this process.

  So where does anthocyanin fit in here?

  Well, anthocyanin is more stable than chlorophyll. It's not harmed as easily by the Sun or the cold. So it's still working long after the chlorophyll breaks down.

  Butwhat does it do?The theory is that anthocyanin protects the reabsorption process from the sunlight. For example, if you look closely at a red leaf on a tree, you'll notice that most of the red pigment is on the upper side of the leaf, the side facing the sun. This new theory suggests that what the anthocyanin is doing there on top is shielding the rest of the leaf from the sunlight, and more importantly, allowing those important chemicals to be reabsorbed by the tree. (6??提問+轉折考點-細節題)


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